Eadweard Muybridge (1830 - 1904) was an English photographer renowned for his groundbreaking work in the field of motion photography, and his early work in the projection of moving pictures. He created motion studies of animals and people in motion – for example in walking, posing and running positions – and these were added to discs and viewed in his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting moving images that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography.
A contemporary of Eadweard Muybridge, Etienne-Jules Marey (1830 - 1904) was not a photographer in the first place. His field was physiology, a relatively new science of the human body that allowed him to indulge his love of physics and engineering. Marey considered the body an animate machine, subject to the same laws as inanimate machines, and he dedicated his life to analyzing the laws that governed its movements.
The publication of Muybridge’s photographs in Paris started Marey on a quest to make a camera that would picture movement as well as chart it. Muybridge’s multicamera system wasn’t scientific enough for Marey. By 1882, he developed a single camera method that he called chrono-, or time-, photography. Objective and precise, chrono-photography allowed Marey to make images from which scientific measurements could be taken.
Unlike the motion studies of Eadweard Muybridge, who depicted movement as a series of discrete moments on separate, sequential negatives, Marey's analyses of motion are characterized by multiple exposures on a single photographic plate. He is widely considered to be a pioneer of photography and an influential precursor of the history of cinema.